Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Questions: 1.Describe e-learning as a training method. 2.Describe the potential barriers of e-learning readiness. 3.Analyze how e-learning readiness has affected your success at Ashford University. 4.Explain what a trainer can do to prepare learners for e-learning. Answers: 1. Describing e-Learning as a training method It can be stated that e-Learning keeps knowledge at the fingerprints of the employees whenever they require it, dwindling the abilities and talents knowledge breach all through the whole association. Apart from that, it can be stated that e-Learning increases the employee retention rates up to 60%. Moreover, it is necessary to mention that compared to the classroom training procedure, e-Learning students have a 62% faster learning curve (Rennie Morrison, 2013). Research and reports have stated that e-Learning has the potentiality to cover 5 times more material of the classroom training in the same quantity of time spent. Recent reports have found out that the corporations that use e-Learning for introducing as well as reinforcing behavior can observe 26% higher revenue-per-workers (Al-Furaydi, 2013). Moreover, it can be found that e-Learning puts aside trade at least 50%, when they put back the conventional classroom teaching with e-Learning. Many companies now a day use e-Learning as a training method because this is highly cost effective and has the potentiality to save time. This is discreet in nature, as e-Learning permits each entity to undertake the topic at their own rapidity, with interactive tasks being set in place to make sure a methodical understanding throughout every component (Frehywot et al., 2013). 2. Describing the potential barriers of e-Learning willingness Fallon and Brown (2016) have stated that e-Learning is one of the good opportunities for the corporations to up-skill their human resources in order to convene the demands of lifelong knowledge. However, the accomplishment of its requirements are required to be well prepared as well as managed because it most of the times takes high investment costs. It can be stated that the beginners require admission to learning actions in their own preferred language. If not, there is a great language obstruction to the acceptance and high possibility that the learning action results would be sub-optimal. Apart from that, it can be seen that the employees in the organization often have numerous positions and responsibilities. Therefore, it is firm enough for them to offer attention and time to learning for an extended time to be properly effectual (Yacob et al., 2012). Apart from that, another barrier is that the companys focus is most of the times on the little term outcomes, whilst the learning objectives are most of the times longer term. Watkins and Corry (2013) has stated that customized learning actions and the e-Learning content are exclusive and as a result, often the more general content that has been delivered to the employees is not suited to their requirements. 3. Analyzing how e-Learning willingness has affected success at Ashford University It can be seen that the classroom learning trainers often talks regarding the requirements to generate a hassle-free as well as expressively appealing learning surroundings. In order to do this, the trainers tend to design the classroom with signage that locates the ground expectations and regulations. Al-Furaydi (2013) has explained in his research work that the trainers often open an assembly with an introduction and they are required to commence people to one another, decrease anxiety by fetching populace jointly and many more. Through this learning, I have been able to set a challenge and the goal everyday and this has enhanced my journey at Ashford University. The learners in the university have always offered proper guidance as well as support to others and this has helped me to succeed in my path. It is required to mention that innovations in the computer disciplines have enables development as well as implementation of e-Learning information systems in both formal and informa l education (Yacob et al., 2012). 4. Explaining what a instructor can do in order to organize learners for e-Learners It can be stated that for learning to take place, the learners require to come across several original contents or at least come across content in a new method. Watkins and Corry (2013) have said that appealing with the trainers appears to be the hardest type of engagement to take over into the e-Learning surroundings. It might be alluring to just depart out this constituent, nut the beginners notice. Apart from that, engaging with the other learners is the next most important thing that a learner is required to focus on. Rennie and Morrison (2013) have stated that constructive and communities learning are all the rage right at the present, with unreliable points of achievement. It can be stated that a trainer must not create the course, as the clients generally do not want to listen this from the learner. The learner must design the course in such a way that no one thinks it is wastage of time (Fallon Brown, 2016). References Al-Furaydi, A. A. (2013). Measuring e-learning readiness among EFL teachers in intermediate public schools in Saudi Arabia.English Language Teaching,6(7), 110. Fallon, C., Brown, S. (2016).E-learning standards: a guide to purchasing, developing, and deploying standards-conformant e-learning. CRC Press. Frehywot, S., Vovides, Y., Talib, Z., Mikhail, N., Ross, H., Wohltjen, H., ... Scott, J. (2013). E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low-and middle-income countries.Human resources for health,11(1), 1. Rennie, F., Morrison, T. (2013).E-learning and social networking handbook: Resources for higher education. Routledge. Watkins, R., Corry, M. (2013).E-Learning Companion: Student's Guide to Online Success. Cengage Learning. Yacob, A., Kadir, A. Z. A., Zainudin, O., Zurairah, A. (2012). Student Awareness Towards E-Learning In Education.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,67, 93-101.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Willem De Kooning Willem De Kooning had been widely acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of this century known for his daring originality. Several exhibitions in the U.S. and abroad have celebrated the artistic achievements of this eminent artist's 60- year career. My essay covers part of his early life with real focus on his late paintings. His last works, painted in the 1980s, as he was in deteriorating health have come under criticism by some critics. Willem de Kooning was born on April 24, 1904 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. His father was a beer distributor and his mother ran a bar. At the age of twelve he became an apprentice at a commercial design and decorating firm. He studied for eight years at Rotterdam's leading art school. In 1926, de Kooning secured a passage on a streamer to the United States, illegally entering and settling in New Jersey. He quickly moved to Manhattan, painted signs and worked as a carpenter in New York City. Then in 1935, he landed a job with the Works Progress Administration, a government agency that put artists to work during the Great Depression. By the next decade, he had attained a place in the downtown art scene among his fellow artists. By the late 1940s, de Kooning along with Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman, began to be recognized as a major painter in a movement called "Abstract Expressionism". This new school of thought shifted the center of twentieth century art form Paris to New York. Willem de Kooning was recognized as the only painter who had one foot in Europe and one in America. He combined classical European training in Holland with a love for popular American culture. The restlessness and energy of American life was a source of great inspiration and passion for him. Gary Garrells, the chief curator at the San Fransisco Museum of Modern Art said, " He had the wildness of Pollock but mixed with the impeccable craftsmanship of the European tradition. He was not interested in style, he was interested in the process of looking and knowing and getting under the skin." Willem de Kooning, 93, was the last survivor of his famous peers. One would not have predicted for him a great old age. Among the leading figures of hard-living generation he belonged by temperament and talent to a romantic tradition of artists who burned the physical and psychic fuel of themselves with devastating speed and completeness. Few of de Kooning's closest friends and colleagues survived the harshness of the 1940s and 1950s. In 1948, Arshile Gorky, De Kooning's mentor for his studio on the eastern end of Long Island, committed suicide at 48. In 1956, Jackson Pollock at the age of 44, killed himself in a drunken roadside collision. In 1962, Franz Kline gave himself away to a heart attack at 52. Three years later David Smith died in a car crash at 59 and in 1970 Mark Rothko, slit his wrists while battling ever-deepening alcoholic depression. Willem de Kooning was the principal member of the Abstract Expressionism. Abstract Expressionism gave birth as a reaction to years of struggle against conservative taste, improvised circumstances and reinforced by confused feelings created after World War II. De Kooning was celebrated for his ferocious Women painting in 1950s. In 1956, he took a break form Women theme, and started to paint small, packed shapes with a feel for city. Woman merged into an urban landscape filled with small, interchangeable parts of the metropolitan environment. In 1963, he began a new series of Women. He painted women on tall door panels. De Kooning's art was of mutually exclusive contradictions without the resolution of synthesis, of harmony and balance. By the end of 1970s, he had reached a point of near total spiritual exhaustion- partly due to heavy drinking and partly for a tendency to forgetfulness and a gradual detachment from the world around him. Much was said of Kooning about his last drawings, " as a doodling of a helpless old man," but the reality was quite different. De Kooning succumbed to Alzheimer disease in late 1970s. According to Peter Schjedahl, in his essay, De Kooning later life was compared to King Lear in Shakespeare's play. It is said of him , " The wonder is, he hath endures so long./ He but usurped his life." Peter continued on with these lyrics of King Lear to praise De Kooning's later life. Come, let's away to prison. We two alone will sing like birds i'the cage. When thou dost ask me blessing, I'll kneel down And ask of
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Armenian Genocide Essays - Armenian Genocide, Anti-Armenianism Armenian Genocide Why was the Armenian Genocide Forgotten? GENOCIDE By definition genocide is the organized killing of a people for the express purpose of putting an end to their collective existence (Websters dictionary). As a rule, the organizing agent is the nation, the victim population is a domestic minority, and the end result is the near total death of a society. The Armenian genocide generally conforms to this simple definition. FORGOTTEN The Armenian genocide is a hidden, almost lost part of world history, pretty much eclipsed by the more publicized genocide of the twentieth century, the Holocaust. The question is why. I could take a poll of this room and I am willing to bet that 95% of the students have ever even heard of the Armenian Genocide and those who have couldnt tell me more than a couple sentences about it. This is pretty scary, considering the statistics of the Armenian Genocide. OTTOMAN EMPIRE The Ottoman Empire was ruled by the Turks who had conquered the land from across West Asia, North Africa to Southeast Europe. The Ottoman government was based in Istanbul and was headed by a sultan who was given absolute power. The Turks were Islamic and were a harsh disciplinary civilization. The Armenians, a Christian minority, lived as second class citizens subject to legal restrictions (Graber 119). These restrictions denied them normal safeguards. Neither their lives nor their properties were guaranteed security. As non-Muslims they were also obligated to pay discriminatory taxes and denied participation in government. In its prime of the sixteenth century the Ottoman Empire was a powerful state. Its minority populations really benefited with the growth of its economy, but by the nineteenth century, the empire was in serious decline(Graber 121). It had been reduced in size and by 1914 had lost virtually all its lands in Europe and Africa. This decline created enormous internal political and economic pressures which contributed to the increasing tensions among the races (similar to Germanys way of blaming the Jews for their economic decline). Armenian aspirations for representation and participation in government worried the Muslim Turks who had never shared power in their country with any minority. Demands by Armenian political organizations for administrative reforms in the Armenian-inhabited provinces and better police protection only invited further repression. During the reign of the sultan Abdul Hamid, a series of massacres throughout the empire meant to dampen Armenian expectations by frightening them, cost up to three hundred thousand lives by some estimates and resulted in enormous material losses on a majority of Armenians. In response to the crisis in the Ottoman Empire, a new political group called the Young Turks seized power by revolution in 1908. From the Young Turks, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) emerged at the head of the government in a coup staged in 1913. It was led by a triumvirate: Enver, Minister of War, Talaat, Minister of the Interior, and Jemal, Minister of the Marine (Hovanissian 15). The CUP spewed ultra-nationalistic culture which promoted the establishment of an exclusively Turkish state. It also promoted thoughts of conquering other regions inhabited by Turkic peoples, almost like our Manifest Destiny. When World War I broke out in August 1914, the Ottoman Empire formed part of the Triple Alliance with the other Central Powers, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it declared war on Russia and its Western allies, Great Britain and France. The Ottoman armies initially suffered a string of defeats. Whether retreating or advancing, the Ottoman army used the occasion of war to wage a scam campaign of massacre against the civilian Armenian population in the regions in which warfare was rampant. These measures were part of the genocidal program secretly adopted by the CUP and implemented under the cover of war. They coincided with the CUP's larger program to eradicate the Armenians from Turkey and neighboring countries. Through the spring and summer of 1915, in all areas outside the war zones, the Armenian population was ordered deported from their homes. Convoys consisting of tens of thousands including men, women, and children were driven hundreds of miles toward the Syrian desert. In April of the young Turks convinced leaders of the Armenian population to meet to discuss the new orders for all
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Religion in colonial America - Essay Example Women were also actively involved in the caring of sick during the epidemic of small pox. Special assembly prayers were held for sick as at one time almost 100 people felt sick every day. This was considered as four times more lethal than the plague, though the city had faced the wrath of fire also. Women along with men however, actively engaged themselves into removing the ruins as well as re-building of the city. (National humanities Center, 2013).Ã Ã While life before revolutionary war was based upon living a typical life where woman was required to focus on the household work, the life during the war was a bit difficult. Those whose husbands had gone to war were made responsible for taking care of their families, while at the same time doing tasks which were mainly male-oriented. Apart from working and caring of the children and elderly, women were active in playing their part n society.Ã It is critical to note however, that women, especially in Boston were subjected to law s which prevented inter-racial marriages. Black women were especially not allowed to marry with the white males and vice versa. These laws actually restricted the freedom and movement of women in choosing their own relationships. This also prevented a widow like me to actually look for re-marriage and enter the new relationships based upon mutual understanding and respect for others.Ã Those who were single or widowed like me tended to perform duties in war besides working as spies. Women who were young.... Women were also actively involved in the caring of sick during the epidemic of small pox. Special assembly prayers were held for sick as at one time almost 100 people felt sick every day. This was considered as four times more lethal than the plague, though the city had faced the wrath of fire also. Women along with men however, actively engaged themselves into removing the ruins as well as re-building of the city. (National humanities Center, 2013). While life before revolutionary war was based upon living a typical life where woman was required to focus on the household work, the life during the war was a bit difficult. Those whose husbands had gone to war were made responsible for taking care of their families, while at the same time doing tasks which were mainly male-oriented. Apart from working and caring of the children and elderly, women were active in playing their part n society. It is critical to note however, that women, especially in Boston were subjected to laws which pr evented inter-racial marriages. Black women were especially not allowed to marry with the white males and vice versa. These laws actually restricted the freedom and movement of women in choosing their own relationships. This also prevented a widow like me to actually look for re-marriage and enter the new relationships based upon mutual understanding and respect for others. Those who were single or widowed like me tended to perform duties in war besides working as spies. Women who were young and physically fit were encouraged to take part in the revolution and contribute towards making things happen. The era before revolution actually helped Boston women to have an improved political understanding of the events and how they could contribute
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Process of Applying for a Degree at CSU - Assignment Example Next, click the next icon at the bottom or on any sections outlined on the left line to move to a dissimilar screen. Your data will be inspected for inconsistencies and errors. If omissions or mistakes are realized, you will be taken back to the screen to correct the responses. Otherwise, your information will be saved to allow you proceed. Put in mind that if you use the jump or Skip button on your left, information on that screen will not be saved and you will be required to re-enter your data. Next, click the next icon at the bottom or on any sections outlined on the left line to move to a dissimilar screen. Your data will be inspected for inconsistencies and errors. If omissions or mistakes are realized, you will be taken back to the screen to correct the responses. Otherwise, your information will be saved to allow you proceed. Put in mind that if you use the jump or Skip button on your left, information on that screen will not be saved and you will be required to re-enter your data before submission. Ã After completing the application, click on the Ã¢â¬Å"SUBMITÃ¢â¬ icon positioned on the left side of the column to present the application. Ã I look forward to your applications. For any questions, please conduct me as soon as possible on my Email address; firstname.lastname@example.org.Ã
Monday, November 18, 2019
Business Plan Issue - Essay Example A few years ago I did some consulting work for a family member that was starting a new company. The firm needed help creating an implementation plan on how to reach the commercialization phase for a new product the firm had developed. The company had already submitted a pre-patent application and the lawyers believed that that the chances of getting the patent approved was very high. Legal protection was one of the variables that were holding back the full launch. Another problem the company faced was a lack of capital. The company had been incorporated for over a year and half doing research and development without generating any revenues. A lack of operating cash led to the failure of the business. This company in its early stages needed a better implementation plan with a better timeframe and action plan. DQ3 The reason most risk management fall short of expectation is because they lack sufficient scope. A lot of managers do not have a clear understanding of all the business risks that can affect a company. For instances variables such as foreign exchange rate are not considered by many when in fact this variable can influence businesses that make many recurrent purchases of materials from foreign distributors. The risk profile of an industry changes and many managers do not keep up with current events sufficiently to realize the new risk variables may affect an industry. For instance the arrival of a wave of new green cars will adversely affect the production of pickup trucks and SUV automobiles. 4. The learning curve has many practical implications for the labor force of a business. Companies that establish themselves in an infant industry are not able to benefit from the virtues of the learning curve. On the other hand firms such as Coca-Cola have gained dominance in the market through years of experience that has enabled the firm to become an expert in the beverage industry. When a company is the first to enter a marketplace they can use that strategy as a tactical advantage to achieve higher market share. Resistance to change can slow down the employee adaption process to a new working environment. 5. I agree with you that planning on many occasions is a weak area on many firms. Not only do companies do not dedicate enough time and money into planning, they also fail to recognize that planning is not limited to the short term. Companies must develop strategic plans five to ten years into the future. I believe that Microsoft when it releases a new product already has the p lans ready for the next generation product that will replace the product that is being introduced. I also agree with you that high moral and ethical standards must be implemented into plans. Back in the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s a lack of ethics led to the Nike sweatshop fiasco. 6. The use of guidance should be followed to spread the use of strategic thinking within a corporation. Your statement about many firms formulating unrealistic vision statements is also true. Sometimes mission and vision statements are used as publicity acts. I would imagine that Enron had a positive mission statement that was obviously not followed by the corrupt executives of the company. Teamwork is a critical success factor in the business environment of the 21st century. Multi-national corporations must be run efficiently in order to maximize
Friday, November 15, 2019
Organizational Structure of Proctor and Gamble Procter Gamble The company I have chosen for the assignment of managing change in organization is Procter Gamble. The company is a Fortune 500 American multinational corporation headquartered in Downtown Cincinnati, Ohio that manufactures a wide range of consumer goods. It is 6th in Fortunes Most Admired Companies 2010 list. PG is credited with many business innovations including brand management and the soap opera. History and Background of Company In 1887 PG institutes a pioneering profit-sharing program that gives employees an ownership stake in the Company. This significant innovation helps employees connect their vital roles with the Companys success. In 1924 PG becomes the first company to conduct deliberate, data-based market research with consumers. This forward-thinking approach enables us to improve consumer understanding, anticipate consumer needs and respond with products that improve their everyday life. In 1994 PG becomes one of the first companies to formally respond to consumer correspondence by establishing the Consumer Relations department. The addition of toll-free phone numbers in 1973 and e-mail in the 1980s further enhance consumers ability to contact us and keep the consumer at the heart of all we do. In 1995 Crest is co developed with Indiana University. This collaboration delivers a product that is a breakthrough in the use of fluoride to protect against tooth decay, the second-most prevalent disease at the time. In 2002 PG develops Naturella feminine pads specifically to meet the needs of low-income women in Latin America. Based on deep consumer understanding, Naturella responds to consumers desire for freshness with chamomile, a unique ingredient never before used in feminine care products. In 2005 High Frequency Stores common in developing markets emerge as our largest customer channel. Consisting of nearly 20 million stores across the world, HFS represents a particular opportunity in fast-growing, low-income markets. Through HFS, we connect to consumers with affordable products and packaging specially designed for their needs. Investigation Organizational Structure of Procter Gamble General definition of Organization structure: Organizational structure specifies the firms formal reporting relationships, procedures, controls, and authority and decision-making processes. Developing an organizational structure that effectively supports the firms strategy is difficult, especially because of the uncertainty (or unpredictable variation) about cause-effect relationships in the global economys rapidly changing and dynamic competitive environments. When a structures elements (e.g., reporting relationships, procedures, and so forth) are properly aligned with one another, that structure facilitates effective implementation of the firms strategies. Thus, organizational structure is a critical component of effective strategy implementation processes Types of organizational structure Simple Structure The simple structure is a structure in which the owner-manager makes all major decisions and moniÃâÃ tors all activities while the staff serves as an extension of the managers supervisory authority. Functional Structure The functional structure is a structure consisting of a chief executive officer and a limited corporate staff, with functional line managers in dominant organizational areas, such as production, accounting, marketing, RD, engineering, and human resources. Multidivisional structure The multidivisional (M-form) structure conÃâÃ sists of operating divisions, each representing a separate business or profit center in which the top corporate offiÃâÃ cer delegates responsibilities for day-to-day operations and business-unit strategy to division managers. Procter Gamble The structure of the Procter and Gamble is multidivisional structure. Because the simple structure is used in a small organization where the owner works as a manager and take all the big decision for the company. Typically, the owner-manager actively works in the business on a daily basis. Informal relationships, few rules, limited task specialization, and unsophisticated information systems describe the simple structure. Frequent and inforÃâÃ mal communications between the owner-manager and employees make it relatively easy to coordinate the work that is to be done. Functional structure is used for the organization which is growing but relatively small organization. This structure allows for functional specialization, thereby facilitating active sharing of knowledge within each functional area. Knowledge sharing facilitates career paths as well as the professional development of functional specialists. However, a functional orientation can have a negative effect on communicatio n and coordination among those repreÃâÃ senting different organizational functions. Because of this, the CEO must work hard to verify that the decisions and actions of individual business functions promote the entire firm rather than a single function. Procter gamble is a relatively big organization with a business spread internationally so they are using multidivisional structure. The multidivisional structure of PG consists of operating divisions, each rep-resenting a separate business or profit center in which the top corporate officer deleÃâÃ gates responsibilities for day-to-day operations and business-unit strategy to division managers. Each division represents a distinct, self-contained business with its own functional hierarchy. As initially designed, the M-form was thought to have three major benefits: (1) it enabled corporate officers to more accurately monitor the perÃâÃ formance of each business, which simplified the problem of control (2) it facilitated comparisons between divisions, which improved the resource allocation process; and (3) it stimulated managers of poorly performing divisions to look for ways of improvÃâÃ ing performance. Active monitoring of performance through the M-form increases the likelihood that decisions made by managers heading individual units will be in shareholders best interests. Brands and Products Brands Beauty and Grooming Products Some of the most famous products of beauty and Grooming brands are as under: CoverGirl Dolce Gabbana Puma Gillette Health and Well-Being Some of the most famous products of Health and Well-Being brand are as under: Vicks Oral-B Always Household Care Some of the most famous products of Household Care brand are as under: Ariel Bounce Bounty Background to Change In January 1999, Jager, a PG veteran became the new CEO taking charge at a time when PG was in the midst of a corporate restructuring exercise that started in September 1998. Jager faced the challenging task of revamping PGs operations and marketing practices. Soon after taking over as the CEO, Jager told analysts that he would overhaul product development, testing and launch processes. The biggest obstacle for Jager was PGs culture. Jager realized the need to change the mindset of the PG employees who had been used to lifetime employment and a conservative management style. On July 1, 1999, PG officially launched the Organization 2005 program. It was a program of six-year duration, during which, PG planned to retrench 15,000 employees globally. The cost of this program was estimated to be $1.9 billion and it was expected to generate an annual savings (after tax deductions) of approximately $900 million per annum by 2004. Change in Organization Structure Till 1998, PG had been organized along geographic lines with more than 100 profit centers. Under Organization 2005 program, PG sought to reorganize its organizational structure from four geographically-based business units to five product-based global business units Baby, Feminine Family Care, Beauty Care, Fabric Home Care, Food Beverages, and Health Care. Internal Change The change the PG going to make internally is starting new business unit in the organizational structure. This change probably effects the whole organization. Because it must share the organization sources financial as well as human resources. External change Environment is changing rapidly so the organization also needs to be a dynamic to cater the environment change. PG is the big organization so its new business unit definitely effects the environment and creates a new market. The Mistakes Committed The Organization 2005 program faced several problems soon after its launch. Analysts were quick to comment that Jager committed a few mistakes which proved costly for PG. For instance, Jager had made efforts in January 2000 to acquire Warner-Lambert and American Home Products. Contrary to PGs cautious approach towards acquisitions in the 1990s, this dual acquisition would have been the largest ever in PGs history, worth $140 billion. However, the stock market greeted the news of the merger negotiations by selling PGs shares, which prompted Jager to exit the deal. Implementing Strategies to Revive PG In June 2000, Alan George Lafley (Lafley), a 23-year PG veteran popularly known as AG, took over as the new President and CEO of PG. The major difference between Lafley and Jager was their style of functioning. Soon after becoming CEO, Lafley rebuilt the management team and made efforts to improve PGs operations and profitability. Lafley transferred more than half of PGs 30 senior most officers, an unprecedented move in PGs history. Building Diversity in the Organization At PG, we believe in taking advantage of all the unique and special differences that our employees possess and leveraging them to the fullest. Since diversity is a business strategy for PG, our efforts are focused on bringing in people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds with remarkably diverse lives and career experiences. Organizations that are in touch are far more capable of understanding consumers from all walks of life. They are far more capable of understanding, appreciating and leveraging their own diversity. They are more capable of tapping the diversity of outside partners. Our recruiting efforts target universities all over Pakistan and are aimed at bringing in people with different leadership and thinking styles. Today, our organization draws from more than 30 schools and universities. We also focus on gender diversity by targeting women at universities for females and holding diversity sessions for female students on campuses. Women offer a different perspective that is crucial to our success. We aim to balance not only organizational diversity but also diversity within the various departments. Women make up about 25 percent of the workforce at PG Pakistan. To stress this goal to our employees, PG Pakistan has introduced many initiatives. To avoid defining our diversity objectives too narrowly and limiting them to percentages and representations of certain groups, PG has made tremendous recruiting efforts and has launched programs such as flexible work arrangements and the day-care center. Diversity is respected and required across all levels of the company. In fact, diversity action plans are developed in each region of the world to give local diversity strategies the best chance of success. Change Management Model: Dealing With Change 1. Denial The first response to a significant change is often shock, a general refusal to recognise the information. In this way we protect ourselves from being overwhelmed. Common responses include: Denying: This cant be happening. Ignoring: Wait till it blows over. Minimizing: It just needs a few minor adjustments. It is possible to continue working in the denial phase, but sooner or later the impact hits home and a personal response is required. Management Approach OF PG Be up front with information to individuals and groups of staff. Let them know that change is going to occur. Acknowledge their fears of change as legitimate. Explain what to expect and suggest actions they can take to adjust to the change. Give them time to let things sink in, and then have a planning session to talk things through. 2. Resistance In this phase things often seem to get worse. Personal distress levels rise. It is common to spend time looking for someone or something to blame, or to spend time complaining about the new set-up. Resistance is about fear of change. People may become physically ill, feel all sorts of physical, emotional, and/or mental symptoms. Some people may doubt their ability to survive the change. During this phase there is a greater focus on mourning the past, more than preparing for the future. Many people want to avoid the situation or pretend it is not happening, sometimes by moving back into denial. The self-acknowledgement of feelings being experienced, will ready people to move more quickly to the next phase. Management Approach of PG Listen, acknowledge feelings, respond empathetically, encourage support. Dont try to talk people out of their feelings, or tell them to change or pull together. If you accept their response, they will continue to feel they are able to tell you how they are feeling. This will help you respond to some of their concerns. Use questions to stimulate broader thinking and perspective setting. 3. Exploration After a period of struggle, individuals and organizations usually emerge from their negativity, breathe a sigh of relief, and shift into a more positive, hopeful, future-focused phase. People realize they are going to make it through OK. It can be as subtle as just feeling better, or as obvious as sleeping through the night for the first time since the change started. The timing is different for each person. New directions do not emerge all at once. Rather, what emerges first is the energy to put a search into action. People begin to discover and explore new ways, to start clarifying goals, assessing resources, exploring alternatives, and experimenting with new possibilities. A motivation to swing into action occurs without trying first to find the right way. It is important to resist completing the exploration phase too soon by accepting something less than what the person is capable of. This is a period of high energy, with creativity at its peak. Management Approach of PG Focus on priorities and provide any needed training. Follow-up on projects underway. Set short-term goals. Conduct brainstorming, visioning and planning sessions. Foster all learning opportunities to help overcome fear of change. 4. Commitment Finally, the individual has broken through the problems, discovered new ways of doing things and/or adapted to the new situation. The commitment phase begins with focus on a new course of action. This could be new ways of doing the job, or finding a new job. The successful commitment to a new course of action shows there has been learning growth and adaptation on the part of the individual. Management Approach of PG Set long-term goals. Concentrate on teambuilding. Create a mission statement. Validate and reward those responding to the change. Look ahead. Strategies pursuing by the Procter and Gamble Strategy 1 Delight the consumer with sustainable innovations that improve the environmental profile of our products. Strategy 2 Improve the environmental profile of PGs own operations. Strategy 3 Improve childrens lives through PGs social responsibility programs. Strategy 4 Engage and equip all PG employees to build sustainability thinking and practices into their everyday work. Strategy 5 Shape the future by working transparently with our stakeholders to enable continued freedom to innovate in a responsible way. Resistance and its Handling y PG Strong resistance to change is often rooted in deeply conditioned or historically reinforced feelings. Patience and tolerance are required to help people in these situations to see things differently. Bit by bit. There are examples of this sort of gradual staged change everywhere in the living world. PG the Psychological Contract is a significant aspect of change, and offers helpful models and diagrams in understanding and managing change potentially at a very fundamental level. Also, certain types of people the reliable/dependable/steady/habitual/process-oriented types often find change very unsettling. People who welcome change are not generally the best at being able to work reliably, dependably and follow processes. The reliability/dependability capabilities are directly opposite character traits to mobility/adaptability capabilities. Certain industries and disciplines have a high concentration of staff who need a strong reliability/dependability personality profile, for example, health services and nursing, administration, public sector and government departments, utilities and services; these sectors will tend to have many staff with character profiles who find change difficult. Age is another factor. Erik Eriksons fascinating Psychosocial Theory is helpful for understanding that peoples priorities and motivations are different depending on their stage of life. The more you understand peoples needs, the better you will be able to manage change. Be mindful of peoples strengths and weaknesses. Not everyone welcomes change. Take the time to understand the people you are dealing with, and how and why they feel like they do, before you take action.